תבליט ובו דמותם של מלכיצדק ואברהם, תצוגת הקבע (מוזיאון מגדל דוד, ירושלים)

Canaanite Period

3200 BCE

The dawn of Jerusalem: from the earliest evidence of the existence of a city in Jerusalem dating as far back as the second millennium BCE, when the Pharaohs ruled the region and the Kings of Israel ruled under their patronage, up to Egypt’s withdrawal from the Land of Israel in the mid 12th century BCE.

“Execration Texts” from Egypt, 19th century BCE

An Egyptian Curse on Jerusalem

The name Rusalimum appears on 4,000-year-old figurines uncovered in Egypt, alongside the names of other Canaanite cities. It was customary to inscribe the figurines with the name of the enemy, add a curse and smash them in a magical ceremony in the belief that the enemy’s power would thus be destroyed.

“Execration Texts” from Egypt, 19th century BCE
Replica courtesy of the Royal Museums of Art and History, Brussels

העתק לוח חומר מתל אל- עמארנה, מצרים, המאה ה-14 לפנה''ס, תצוגת הקבע (מוזיאון מגדל דוד, ירושלים)

A Letter from Jerusalem

Some 350 letters written by the governor of Urusalim (Jerusalem) to the Pharaonic kings were uncovered in the Egyptian royal archive of Tel Al Amarna. Jerusalem is mentioned four times in a letter in which Pharaoh is requested to send an army to the city which was in danger.

Clay tablet from Tel Al Amarna, Egypt, 14th century BCE
Replica courtesy of the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin